Lily Ishak, Abd Wahab Hasyim


Soil structural destruction in form of soil compaction due to intensive practices on agricultural soils has resulted in soil health disturbance. The SOM decline may impair soil structure and hence the formation of soil compaction. Instead, most farmers around the globe has currently adopted reduced-till and/or no-till methods to improve soil and plant productivity. No-till method has actually been applied by farmers in the small islands of North Maluku for about two centuries in cultivating nutmeg plants. Unfortunately, no-till method is applied by burning crop residue that has potentially induced the loss of SOM and soil erosion. Low SOM and soil carbon sequestration induces soil compaction, which may inhibit root penetration into the deeper layers; thereby decreases nutmeg yield and soil biodiversity, and support the incidence of soil-born diseases like white root disease on nutmeg. The continuous reduction of nutmeg yield has remarkably brought down the heyday of spices from this region. Given the significant contribution of nutmeg to the national and regional income, the strategies of soil management on nutmeg small-holder plantations need to be further discussed to contribute thoughts and notions for improving nutmeg farming system and restoring the heyday of nutmeg agribusiness in North Maluku.    

Keywords:  Conservation agricultural system,  soil compaction, soil health, spice agricultural system in small islands

Teks Lengkap:



Bajgai Y, Kristiansen P, Hulugalle N, McHenry M. 2013. Comparison of organic and conventional managements on yields, nutrients and weeds in a corn–cabbage rotation. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems: 1-11.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2018. Provinsi Maluku Utara dalam Angka. BPS Provinsi Maluku Utara. URL:

Beare MH, Gregorich EG, St-Georges P, 2009. Compaction effects on CO2 and N2O production during drying and rewetting of soil, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41 (3): 611 - 621.

Berisso FE, Schjønning P, Keller T, Lamandé M, Etana A, de Jonge LW, Iversen BV, Arvidsson J, Forkman J, 2012. Persistent effects of subsoil compaction on pore size distribution and gas transport in a loamy soil, Soil and Tillage Research, 122: 42 - 51.

Botta GF, Tolon-Becerra A, Lastra-Bravo X, Tourn M, 2010. Tillage and traffic effects (planters and tractors) on soil compaction and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields in Argentinean pampas. Soil and Tillage Research, 110 (1): 167 - 174.

Busari MA, Kukal SS, Kaur A, Bhatt R, Dulazi AA, 2015. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment, International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 3:119-129.

Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan Republik Indonesia. 2018. Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia 2015 - 2017, Pala. Dirjen Perkebunan RI.

Direktorat Jenderal Perkebunan Republik Indonesia. 2019. Statistik Perkebunan Indonesia 2018 - 2020, Pala. Dirjen Perkebunan RI.

Doran JW, Zeiss MR, 2000. Soil health and sustainability: managing the biotic component of soil quality. Applied Soil Ecology, 15: 3 -11.

Dumanski J, Peiretti R. 2013. Modern concepts of soil conservation, International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 1 (1): 19 - 23.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2018. Land and Water. Retrieved from:

Gibbs HK, Salmon JM. 2015. Mapping the world’s degraded lands. Applied Geography, 57: 12 - 21.

Gupta GS. 2019. Land degradation and challenges of food security. Review of European Studies, 11 (1): 63 - 72.

Ishak L, McHenry MT, Brown PH. 2013. Soil compaction in tropical organic farming systems and its impact on natural soil-borne disease suppression: challenges for management. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 7 (11): 2926-2928.

Ishak L. 2017. Soil microbial communities and disease suppression as affected by soil compaction resulting from different strategy management. PhD Thesis. Central Queensland University, Australia.

Ishak L, Brown PH, 2018. Changes in microbial communitiy as affected by soil compaction and organic matter amendment. International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering Information Technology, 8 (6): 2349-2354.

Lehman RM, Acosta-Martinez V, Buyer JS, Cambardella CA, Collins HP, Ducey TF, Harlvorson JJ, Jin VL, Johnson JMF, Kremer RJ, Lundgren JG, Manter DK, Maul JE, Smith JL, Stott DE, 2015. Soil biology for resilient, healthy soi., Soil and Water Conservation Society, 70 (1): 12A -18A.

Li LJ, You MY, Shi HA, Han XZ, 2012. Short-term tillage influences microbial properties of a Mollisol in Norteast China. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 10 (3 & 4): 1433 - 1436.

Li LJ, You MY, Shi HA, Zou WX, Han XZ, 2013. Tillage effects on SOC and CO2 emissions of Mollisols. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 11 (1): 340 - 345.

Rajan G, Lamichhane S, Acharya BS, Bista P, Sainju UM, 2017. Tillage, crop residue and nutrient management effects soil organic carbon in rice-based cropping system: a review, Journal of Intergrative Agriculture, 16(1): 1-15.

Shah AN, Tanveer M, Yang G, Fahad S, Ali S, Bukhari MA, Tung SA, Hafeez S, Souliyanonh B, 2017. Soil compaction effects on soil health and crop productivity: an overview. Environmental Science and Pollution Research: 24, 10056-10067.

Silburn DM, Freebairn DM, Rattray DJ, 2007. Tillage and the environment in subtropical Australia—Tradeoffs and challenges. Soil and Tillage Research, (2): 306 - 317.

Soane BD, van Ouwerkerk C. (Eds) 2013. Soil Compaction in Crop Production. Elsevier: Amsterdam - London - New York - Tokyo.

Soil Survey Staff, “Keys to Soil Taxonomy”, Twelfth Edition, United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2014.

Xiaozhu Y, Zhuang LI, Cungang C, 2016. Effect of conservation tillage practices on soil phosphorus nutrition in an apple orchard, Horticultural Plant Journal, 2(6): 331-337.


  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.