Hamdan Kurnia


The research is entitled Reference in Narrative Texts. Writer investigates hypothesis focused on reference usage.  The reference is as a part of cohesive devices in grammatical cohesion, and narrative is a mode of genre in text. The research is developed in distribution and frequency in cohesive device. The objectives of this research are to analyze and describe (1) entities or piece of informations appear or refer to the same referent; (2) reference as indicator genre; and (3) accurance and distribution of links  within a text and a group of texts. In 120 cohesive ties, (1) Non-Possessive Personal Reference occupies the first ranking. The data indicates 56 cohesive ties, (2) Demonstrative Reference occupies the second ranking. The data indicates 45 cohesive ties; and (3) Comparative Reference occupies the last ranking. The data indicate 6 cohesive ties. It means in the narrative text, the Comparative Reference is rarely used. The writer adopted theories of Halliday and Hassan and Wendy Swanson to establish relationship within a text. These are appropriate with the analyzed texts as they have given comprehensive and adequate treatment of the subjects; besides that, He consider other theories like Ann M. Johns, Megan Watkins, Linda Gerot and Peter Wignell, and some others.  Further research can involve in different text, such as:  expository text, report text, spoof text, explanation text, news item text, analytical and hortatory text, and etc. because genres vary.

Kata Kunci

cohesive device; reference items; narrative text

Teks Lengkap:



Johns , M Ann (2002). Genre in The Classroom Muliple Perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, publishers. San Diego State University. London: Mahwah, New Jersey.

Halliday , M.A.K. and Hasan, Ruqaiya (1989). Cohesion in English. Longman Inc., Gorup UK Limited.

Swanson, Wendy (2003). Modes of Co-reference as an Indicator of Genre. Peter Lang AG, European Academic Publisher.

Knapp and Watkins Megan (2009). Genre, Text, Grammar . University of New South Wales Press Ltd.

Gerot, Linda and Wignel, Peter (1995). Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Gerd Sstabler Antipodean Educational Enterprices.

Asher, Nicholar (1993). Reference to Abstract Objects in Discourse. The University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A., Kluwer Academic Publisher.



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Journal NameHUMANO: Jurnal Penelitian
Print ISSN1978-6115
Elektronik ISSN2597-9213
PublisherLembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Masyarakat (LPPM) Universitas Khairun
AddressJalan Yusuf Abdurrahman Kampus II Unkhair, Kelurahan Gambesi, 97722 Kecamatan Kota Ternate Selatan, Provinsi Maluku Utara
CountryIndonesia / 

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